Nano-particles are health risks that are produced from substances such as quantum dots, metal nanowires, and carbon nanotube among others. Risks related to health and environments are related to the development, use, production, and disposal of unused materials. This assist in preventing workers in the production department from health hazards resulting from these particles. In order to access health risks that arise from chemical exposure, understanding of toxic substances and the level of exposure is required. This paper will discuss risk assessment of drug delivery using Nano-particles.


Nanoparticles are substances which are used in the delivery of drugs in the brain. PBCA nanoparticles have a negative pharmacological effect when administered with poor diffusion. Pegylated immunoliposomes access the brain and deliver the drugs into the brain parenchyma in small contents. Nanotechnologies are small dimensional technology with small dimensions of nanometer. Nanotechnologies exploit properties that occur from structuring matter characterized by interacting with quantum mechanics and classical physics. Nanotechnologies result from production of intermediate goods therefore, enabling technologies. Nanotechnologies connect different disciplines such as information technology, genetics, chemistry, and physics among others. Nanotechnologies have different benefits in the world today. One of the benefits of Nano-technologies is provision of household cleaning products. These products such as window sprays are used for cleaning windows. Another advantage is the production of vanish, paints and other coatings which are used for building finishing. In addition, Nanotechnologies produces nano-electronics, which are used in information and communication technology. Likewise, Nanotechnologies products are used in execution of biomedical such as drug delivery devices, implants, biosensors and medical imaging. Similarly, Nanotechnologies are used in storage and capture of energy using devices such as catalysts, fuels, batteries, and solar cells (Åkerman et al 25-27).

Nano-fibers, nanotube, nano-spheres, Nano-particles produced using Nanotechnologies has raised different concerns for humans especially the health workers and the environment. The workers who work in these nanoparticle industries are at high risks of being affected by the exposure. Small particles inhaled by the workers affect their brain which leads to brain tumors. However, the effects of nano-particles cannot be predicted from the toxicity of the materials. The Royal academy of Engineering and UK Royal Society recommended that nano-particle chemicals should be treated as news substances under NONS (Notification of New Substances) registration and regulation. Nano-particles are created using different methods, which include pyrolysis and attrition. (Connor et al 5).

In pyrolysis, a gas or a liquid is forced through an orifice by use of high pressure where it is burned. This produces soot which is air classified to recuperate oxide particles from gases produced as by-products. The soot produced pollutes the environment which affects people living in the area. Nano-particles are produced using attrition method where micro and macro scale are reduced in a ball mill. These particles are used to recover nano-particles through air classification. Thermal temperatures are used to heat solids at 9,000K melts and evaporate to produce energy. There are different types of thermal plasma torches used to generate nano-particles. They include RF (radio frequency) induction plasma, dc arc plasma and dc plasma jet. In RF induction, energy is generated by use of electromagnetic field, which is generated by the induction coil. This method of induction is used to synthesize nano-particle materials used in ceramics such as nitride and oxides among others. In the arc plasma induction, an electric arc is used to produce the energy required for reaction and evaporation (Connor et al 7).


Use of drug delivery and nanotechnology in medicine is rapidly spreading today. Nano-particles are used in pharmaceutical sciences, to reduce toxicity of drugs and their side effects. The toxicology of particulate matter is different from toxicology of different substances. This exposes internal organs to threats such as lungs after inhalation. The size of nano-particles influences various barriers within the body. Nano-particles are used in medicine since they have higher functional surface, which can carry, absorb, and bid with other compounds such as proteins, probes, and drugs. However, there are different challenges, which affect their application. One of the challenges is that one need to realize the understanding of patho-physiological basis of the disease and determine diagnostic opportunities to yield the required therapies.

During drug targeting, drug delivery biodegradable nano-particle formulations are required to release and transport the drug properly to be effective. Some of the effects, which result from inhaling substances with nano-particles, include blood coagulation effect, cardiovascular effects, systematic effects, immune adjuvant effect, and pulmonary effects. Some of these effects of nano-particles pollute the environment. When humans inhale nano-particles, they are deposited in the respiratory tract while some are deposited in the lungs. Likewise, some particles move to the fetus of pregnant women, liver, brain, and spleen. The effect depends on the time of exposure to the person. This affects the growth of the baby, which may lead to respiratory problems to the baby. The amount of particles present in the liver is attributed by translocation from the lung to the blood. Inhaling of nano-size particles, results to inflammation and pulmonary injury due to oxidation cells that affect the cells. To determine the amount of nano-particles inhaled one needs to have knowledge in several mechanisms, these mechanisms include accumulation of the particles in feaces and urine, metabolism, translocation in the circulation, redistribution, and solubility among others (Borm and Mulle 80-82).

Nano-particles are used in drug delivering for cancer therapy, imaging, and diagnostics. Similarly, experts are investigating on gene delivery purposes. There are different formulations, which are used to delivery drug purposes. Some of these formulations include gelatin, methoxy polyethylene, magnetic iron oxide, polyalkalylcynoacrylate composites, gold, and albumin among others. Albumin nano-particles are used as anticancer drug delivery in clinical studies. These drugs are either administered through the skin, parental or orally to treat brain diseases (Borm and Mulle 80-82). Entrapment of nano-particle drugs is either taken by the cells or delivered to enhance reduction of toxin. The modification of the surface with polyethyleneglycol has resulted to the presence of circulation by avoiding phagocytosis and recognition by the system. Secretion helps in determining inflammatory level of proteins. Nano-particles are used for administering DNA vaccination and cancer therapy to cancer patients. Nano-particles have one advantage when used for pharmaceutical formulation by crossing the blood brain barrier. When low particles are applied in different surfaces, there was no effect on blood brain barrier. Nano-particle formulations are used in draining lymph nodes, as well as prevention of cardiovascular rest enosis. Use of gold formulation has been used to enhance the anti-tumor activity (Donaldson et al 10-16).

Dose usage in reducing toxicology of nano-particles is a significant challenge. Toxicology affects the health depending on the level of exposure. Interactions in the biological systems are determined by the concentration of nano-particles and the surface area. There is different hypothesis for adverse health effects of nano-particles. One of the results is the formation of complex bimolecular. Another result is the formation of the increased level of radical species as compared to larger particles. Correspondingly, it results to induction of oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation. Nano-technology impacts are of two aspects. One aspect is the impact in improvement of the environment while the other one is pollution of the environment. Nano-technology pollutes the environment by disposing all the waste products that emerge from nano-particles during the manufacturing process. The waste can float in the air where it penetrates in animals and humans. Nano-technology has a significant impact to the environment. Nano-materials are used in the production of energy indirectly by producing energy enhancement materials such as solar cells and batteries. This technology assists in energy manufacturing, storage, and distribution. This assists in reducing the process and materials required in the production. Likewise, nanotechnology is used in water remediation and filtration. The holes have nanotube, which remove the particles and separate the liquids. In addition, magnetic nano-particles are used to remove metal particles from wastewater by using magnetic separation techniques (Jin et al 20-35).


Use of Nano-technology in medicine is likely to increase rapidly in the future. Nano-particles have been used for reducing toxicity in humans as well as drug side effects. Benefits of Nanotechnologies include provision of house cleaning products, provision of vanish, paints and other coatings, production of nano-electronics which are used in information and communication technology and storage of energy. Different types of thermal plasma torches used to generate nano-particles include RF (radio frequency) induction plasma, dc arc plasma and dc plasma jet. Nano particles are used in drug delivering for cancer therapy, imaging, and diagnostics. Nano-particles are used for administering DNA vaccination and cancer therapy to cancer patients. Nano-particles have one advantage when used for pharmaceutical formulation by crossing the blood brain barrier. Nano-technology pollutes the environment by disposing all the waste products that emerge from nano-particles during the manufacturing process.